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PT. Multistrada Arah Sarana Tbk.
© 2012 Achilles
 
  • 1
     
    4 Tire Main Function
     
     
    Tire has very significant role in driving. Compared to other spare parts, pneumatic tire is like air bag with its construction designed following road surface and various types of vehicles. Tire's main functions include as follows:
    1. Supporting ⁄ holding up vehicle load
    2. Forwarding the wheel function and controlling vehicle's direction
    3. Forwarding motive force and braking of the vehicle on the road surface
    4. absorbing shock from road surface
  • 2
     
    General Differences between Radial and Bias
     
     
    Tire Construction Basic Structure
    Tire construction structure is designed to reach intended performance characteristic and pursuant to objectives of usage or utilization, namely according to road condition and type of vehicle, however, in general, tire construction can be described as follows:
    Radial Tire
    Radial construction consists of body ply with its thread arranged vertically to tire diameter.

    Bias Tire
    Bias constructionn consists of body ply with its thread arranged in cross with diagonal direction one another.
  • 3
     
    Advantages of Radial Characteristics to Bias Tire
     
     
    Construction of Bias/Tubetype Tire
    Construction of Radial Tire
    Advantages
     
    RADIAL TIRES
     
    SPEED
    Radial speed rating is generally higher than that of bias
    ENDURANCE
    Radial speed rating is generally higher than that of bias
    CONTROL
    Radial has higher traction and stability both for straight and bend roads.
    FUEL CONSUMPTION
    Utilizing radial construction, radial tire has lower rolling resistance than bias, so that fuel will be saved due to smaller energy release.
    APPEARANCE
    Radial is more attractive viewed from style, wall design, and tread than bias.
     
     
     
     
  • 4
     
    Advantages of Tubeless Radial to Tubetype Radial
     
     
    In general, radial tire has tubeless construction. Tubeless mean any tire not requiring tube and, as its substitute, the tire is layered with inner liner made of airtight rubber material.
    Tubeless Tire
    Tubetype Tire
    Advantages of Tubeless Tire
    • Lighter than tubetype tire
    • Safer when it is affected by sharp object (nail)
    • No risks of exploding due to heat caused by frictions
  • 5
     
    Radial Construction and Its Functions
     
     
    1. Sidewall
      Protecting body ply (carcass) on tire side and also functioning as place for putting tire important information.
    2. Gum Strip
      Special rubber put on steel belt edge functioning as shock absorber of steel belt thread tip.
    3. Cap Strip/Cap Ply
      Any textile thread with angle 0 layered by rubber. Utilized for twisting belt that the steel belt will not change its angle and diameter due to centrifugal force when the tire is used at high speed. Function:
      • to improve tire performance at high speed
    4. Tread
      Tread is main part of tire directly contacting road surface. It defines tire life, provides with tire appearance, and creates good traction on wet road.
    5. Apex / Filler
      Apex is in a triangle in couple with bead and they have different functions as:
      • Handling and stability
      • Blank space filler at body ply fold.
    6. Inner Liner
      One part of tire located at inner part, functioning as substitute to tire tube and made of mixed airtight rubber.
    7. Steel Belt
      A steel belt liner that has been laminated by rubber and arranged by intersection. Belt provides with tire reinforcement and it has more stable and flexible physical characters. Its functions as:
      • Body ply holder for obtaining tread so that it can step on road perfectly.
      • Strengthening body ply (carcass) so that it will always be able to defend its round from of road construction
    8. Bead Wire
      Its form is carbon steel wire layered with hard rubber and then formed as proper circle in layers. Its functions:
      • ply lock to attach to rim.
    9. Body Ply (Carcass)
      Body ply is main part of tire in the form of layered sheet consisting of polyester or nylon or wire thread with rubber liner. Functions of body ply are as follows:
      • Tire frame.
      • To hold tire pressure.
      • To absorb vibration of road.
  • 6
     
    Tire Size
     
     
     
    P 205 / 75 R 15 98 H XL
     
    205
    Nominal Section Width (mm)
    75
    Aspect Ratio (Series)
    R
    Radial Construction
    15
    Rim Diameter
    98
    Load Index (750kg)
    H
    Speed Index (210 km/h)
    XL
    Extra Load
     
     
     
     
     
    245 / 75 R 15 C 120/116 L
     
    245
    Nominal Section Width (mm)
    75
    Aspect Ratio (Series)
    R
    Radial Construction
    15
    Rim Diameter
    C
    Load Range (6PR)
    120/116
    Load Index
    (Single/Dual = 1,400kg/1,250kg)
    L
    Speed Index (120 km/h)
     
     
     
     
     
    31 x 10.50 R 15 109 Q
     
    31
    Overall Diameter (inch)
    10.50
    Nominal Section Width (inch)
    R
    Radial Construction
    15
    Rim Diameter
    109
    Load Index (1,030kg)
    Q
    Speed Index (160 km/h)
     
     
     
     
     
    19 / 57 - 15
     
    19
    Nominal Section Width (cm)
    57
    Overall Diameter
    15
    Rim Diameter
     
     
     
     
  • 7
     
    Pattern Tread of Tire
     
     
     
    Asymmetrical Tread Pattern
     
    Good stability & wet handling
    Asymmetrical tire design has a different tread pattern between the outside and inside section. It aims to keep the stability of the tire balance. These designs give excellent maneuvering; with better noise level than high performance tires.
     
     
     
     
     
    Directional Symmetrical Tread
     
    Better grip on wet roads,
    good cornering at speed on a dry
    Symmetrical tires with rotation have the same tread pattern between outside and inside sections. The symmetrical shape of tires clearly can be seen on rotation. The rotation direction can be seen on the side of the tire. These designs give excellent performance on wet roads. Do not install a symmetrical tire upside down, forcing this installment would endanger the driver when the car is used on wet roads.
     
     
     
     
     
    Asymmetrical Tread Pattern
     
    Low noise, tire rotation
    Symmetrical tire designs have a simmiliar tread pattern in between outside and inside sections. It makes it easier and more flexible for the driver when handling the vehicle.
     
     
     
     
  • 8
     
    Speed Symbol and Speed Limit Table
     
     
     
    SPEED
    SYMBOL
    SPEED
    (km/h)
     
    A1
    5
    A2
    10
    A3
    15
    A4
    20
    A5
    25
    A6
    30
    A7
    35
    A8
    40
    B
    50
    C
    60
     
     
     
     
     
    SPEED
    SYMBOL
    SPEED
    (km/h)
     
    D
    65
    E
    70
    F
    80
    G
    90
    J
    100
    K
    110
    L
    120
    M
    130
    N
    140
    P
    150
     
     
     
     
     
    SPEED SYMBOL
    SPEED
    (km/h)
     
    Q
    160
    R
    170
    S
    180
    T
    190
    U
    200
    H
    210
    V
    240
    W
    270
    Y
    300
     
     
     
     
  • 9
     
    Load Index and Load Capacity Table
     
     
     
    LOAD INDEX
    Kg
     
    71
    345
    72
    355
    73
    365
    74
    375
    75
    387
    76
    400
    77
    412
    78
    425
    79
    437
    80
    450
     
     
     
     
     
    LOAD INDEX
    Kg
     
    81
    462
    82
    475
    82
    487
    84
    500
    85
    515
    86
    530
    87
    545
    88
    560
    89
    580
    90
    600
     
     
     
     
     
    LOAD
    INDEX
    Kg
     
    91
    615
    92
    630
    93
    650
    94
    670
    95
    690
    96
    710
    97
    730
    98
    750
    99
    775
    100
    800
     
     
     
     
     
    LOAD INDEX
    Kg
     
    101
    825
    102
    850
    103
    875
    104
    900
    105
    925
    106
    950
    107
    975
    108
    1000
    109
    1030
    110
    1060
     
     
     
     
  • 10
     
    Groove Depth
     
     
     
    Groove or Tire Pattern Depth
     
    Groove or Tire Pattern Depth is depth measurement of tire pattern
     
     
     
     
  • 11
     
    Tire Rim
     
     
     
    Rim Width
     
    Rim width is the measurement on how wide of a tire you can install. Each tire has specification of rim width range that be mounted